Baking Process and Engineering Manual

Baking by infrared radiation

Our manual is way of sharing over 50 years of experience in the biscuit baking industry world-wide. As engineers, we have worked with first class food technologists, bakers and confectioners in Europe, North and South America, Africa, Asia and Australasia. Our customers have included the largest multi nationals and many local businesses.

You will find here a great deal of technical information and recommendations regarding biscuit baking. These are offered to share experience which has been valuable for us. It is not the only way to bake and to build biscuit baking ovens, but it has worked well for us and many of the bakeries we served.

230 pages and over 200 illustrations: available to download as e copy and onCD

Now available at a special price of USD 199.00. Order from Baker Pacific Ltd.

by email to bakerman@dircon.co.uk  specifying bakerpacific.net

CONTENTS

1. THE BISCUITS

Crackers
Hard sweet
Short doughs
Cookies
Long shelf life cakes
Snack cakes

2. BAKING PROCESS

Ingredients:
Wheat flour
Wheat gluten
Starch
Sugar
Leavening agents
Fats

Baking process:
Structure and texture
Moisture removal
Colour

3. BISCUIT DESIGN AND OUTPUT

Cutter and moulding roll layouts
Scrap and scrap-less designs
Oven band loadings
Docker pins
Oven size and output calculations

4. HEAT TRANSFER

Radiation
Conduction
Convection

5. OVEN DESIGNS

Heat transfer methods
Direct gas fired ovens
Electric ovens
Indirect radiant ovens (cyclotherm)
Conduction heat transfer
Convection baking
“Re-circ” ovens
Hybrid ovens
Dielectric heating

6. OVEN SPECIFICATIONS: hybrid ovens

Crackers
Light carrier products
Hard sweet biscuits
Soft dough cookies
Calculation of oven zone lengths
Measuring baking profiles
Heat flux

7.1. OVEN CONSTRUCTION: Direct Gas Fired Ovens

Baking chambers
Extraction system
Explosion relief
Inspection and clean out doors
Gas burner system
Temperature control system
Flynn burners
Eratec MFB burners

7.2. OVEN CONSTRUCTION: Indirect Fired Ovens

Baking chambers
Heater module
Radiant tubes
Circulation and extraction fans
Explosion relief
Inspection and clean out doors

Indirect Fired Oven burners
Weishaupt burners
Maxon burners

8. OVEN CONVEYOR BANDS

Wire mesh bands
La Bridoire (Agrati)
Steinhaus Gmbh
Skid bar supports
Return band supports
Oven band cleaning
Oven band tracking
Joining wire-mesh bands

Heavy mesh bands
CB5
Oven band supports
Oven band tracking
Joining bands

Steel bands
Sandvik
Steel band supports
Joining steel bands
Steel band cleaners
Steel band greasing
Steel band tracking

9. OVEN CONVEYOR DESIGN

Oven feed end unit
Oven terminal drums
Oven band tension system
Delivery end unit
Delivery end drum
Oven band drives
UPS system
Stripping conveyor
Oven end hood design
Calculation of oven band tension
Calculation of electric motor size

10. OVEN CONTROL SYSTEMS

Temperature monitoring and control
Temperature controllers
PID control
Top and bottom temperature control
Humidity
Colour control
Colour measurement
Oven safety monitoring and alarm
Oven band tracking
Oven band drive
Emergency oven band drive
Oven band tension
Oven burners and gas system
Burner flame safety
Excess temperature
Extraction and combustion air fans
Control panels

General safety equipment and instructions
Guards
Operation, cleaning and maintenance
Protection of employees
Emergency shutdown
Electrical panel construction
Electrical trunking design

PLC control

11.1. OVEN OPERATION: Direct Gas Fired Oven

Starting the oven
Lighting the burners
Heating up / start of production
Shutting down the oven
Oven safety monitoring and alarms
Control equipment for the DGF oven
Quality control

11.2. OVEN OPERATION: Indirect Radiant Oven

Preparation
Starting the oven
Lighting the burners
Heating up / production
Damper controls
Shutting down the oven
Indirect radiant oven burner
Control of Heat Recovery System

12. OVEN MAINTENANCE

New equipment
Routine maintenance
Mechanical components
Electrical maintenance
Maintenance schedule
Oven cleaning
Standard lubrication
Maintenance log
Recommended spare parts

13. OVEN INSPECTION AND AUDIT

Oven performance
Energy usage
Oven band
Baking chamber
Gas / oil trains
DGF burners
Indirect burners
Temperature control systems
Measuring baking profiles
Electrical panels

14. OVEN EFFICIENCY

Energy use
Heat loss
Energy consumption
Heat energy diagram
Comparison of efficiency for different ovens
Comparison of fuel costs
Calculations of energy required to bake

APPENDIX 1: Combustion data

APPENDIX 2: Oven manufacturers

APPENDIX 3: Oven band manufacturers

270 illustrations - picture

LOGO 2014

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