biscuits for refugees

Many people are in need of food for sustenance at this time. Biscuits can provide valuable nutrition and energy.

Biscuits are the first and best convenience food.

  • Require no preparation – eaten straight from the pack
  • Have a long shelf life, 6-12 months
  • Nutritious, providing protein and energy
  • Can carry vital minerals and energy

In many countries, biscuits play a vital part in providing nutrition. An example is the glucose biscuit. In India Parle Products sells approximately 13 billion of their Parle G biscuits each month. The glucose biscuit is a short, sweet, rotary moulded product. It is cheap, nutritious and satisfying.

Product specification

Dimensions:                            58 x 37 mm          55 x 34 mm

Thickness:                                6.7 mm                 5.4mm

Weight:                                    5.2g                       4.7g

Appearance:                          Bold design

Colour:                                    Golden

Texture:                                   Short and tender

Flavour:                                   Sweet

Moisture:                                 1.4 – 2.0%

Formulation 1

Flour (weak)                            100.00

Powdered sugar                      29.50

Palm oil                                   19.50

Lecithin                                    0.62

Glucose 42DE                         2.50

Fructose                                    1.25

Skimmed milk powder             2.35

Calcium carbonate                    0.55

Salt                                           1.10

Sodium acid phosphate            0.30

Ammonium bicarbonate           0.58

Sodium bicarbonate                 0.49

Vitamin mix                                 0.11

Flavours                                   0.21

Water                                        13.33


Critical ingredients

  1. Flour should not exceed 8.0 – 9.0% protein. Higher protein will result in a tough biscuit, particularly if it is overmixed.
  • The vitamin mix may be developed to suit the particular requirements.

Process for Glucose biscuits

Dough mixing

The mixing process must not develop the gluten in the flour as this will result in a tough biscuit. Mixing is therefore done in 2 stages.

In the first stage all the ingredients are mixed except the flour and soda. The mixing continues until a consistent, homogenous cream is produced. It is important to keep the temperature of the dough low and chilled water is required for the mixer jacket.

For the second stage, the flour and soda are added and mixed for one minute at slow speed and 1-2 minutes at high speed. The final dough temperature should be 18 – 22oC.

Baker Perkins horizontal high speed mixer

Standing time

The dough will be sticky when discharged from the mixer as the flour has not fully absorbed the water. The dough should be stood in a cool area for 20 – 30 minutes before forming. It will then be less sticky and will release from the rotary moulding roll more easily.

Rotary moulding

The dough should be fed very evenly and consistently to the hopper of the rotary moulder, maintaining an even level across the width of the machine during the production.

Adjustments will be made to the gap between the forcing roll and the moulding roll, knife position and pressure roll to achieve a good release and good product shape.

Rotary moulder


An Indirect Radiant oven, Direct Gas Fired or hybrid DGF / Indirect Radiant oven are recommended.  An open wire mesh baking band Z47 type is used.

Baker Pacific Indirect Radiant oven

Steam may be used at the oven entry to achieve a high humidity. This will allow the biscuit to develop in the first zone and achieve good volume.

Baking time:                   5.0 – 5.5 minutes

Temperatures:                80 / 200 / 220 / 200 /180oC

Moisture:                        Less than 3.0%


Sufficient cooling is required to set the biscuit, which will be soft as it leaves the oven, usually 1:1.5 baking to cooling time. The oven requires an adequate extension and adjustable stripping knife to obtain good release and transfer.

Formulations for Glucose biscuits

Icing sugar30.800
Invert syrup1.600
Vegetable fat25.600
Milk powder2.000
Baking powder0.200
Ammonium bicarbonate1.000
Sodium bicarbonate0.400
Butter essence0.060
Milk essence0.120
Vitamin mix0.050

Flour 100.000
Palm oil19.500
Icing sugar29.500
Semi-skimmed milk powder2.350
Cakcium carbonate0.550
Ammonium bicarbonate0.583
Sodium bicarbonate0.492
Sodium pyrophosphate0.300
Vitamin pre-mix0.110
Dough scrap5.000
Biscuit dust5.000

from Biscuit, Cookie and Cracker Process and Recipes

For more information contact Baker Pacific:


Baker Pacific Ltd. are suppliers of process technology and production equipment for biscuits, cookies, crackers, candy and chocolate.


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